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Cyanobacteria and higher plantscontain -carotene as a primary carotenoid found in both PSI and PSII (Fig. 3). In the case of A. marina, -carotene was detected instead of -carotene, and zeaxanthin, an oxidative product of -carotene, was identified as a major carotenoid (4, 13). A similar carotenoid composition has been reported only in Prochlorococcus species that contain atypical, divinyl-Chls, an
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Ecies (32). Such enzymes could provide another means for Chl d biosynthesis. A. marina codes for 12 proteins with putative radical SAM motifs, far more than expected from an oxygen-producing cyanobacterium. Of these 12, two (AM1 5023 and AM1 5798) share very little homology with other sequenced cyanobacteria. The Chl d biosynthesis pathway may not be as simple as expected. Unlike the formyl side c
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Ith a lambda-phage cI motif are also likely correlated with the extra recA (22, 24). The presence of multiples copies of recA and related enzymes could account for gene duplication and/or integration of foreign genes that would lead to genome expansion. Based on the comparative analysis of many genomes, Konstantinidis et al. (21) hypothesized that species with large genomes may dominate noncompeti
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Of the A. marina chromosome nucleotide sequence (vs. itself) shows 18.7 of the sequence (not including the original, duplicated sequence) has a homology of greater than E 1 10 10 to another location on the chromosome. This is significantly higher than the 11.2 and 5.8 duplication in Synechocystis PCC6803 and Nostoc sp. PCC7120, respectively. A. marina actually has far fewer duplicated regions t
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Of the A. marina chromosome nucleotide sequence (vs. itself) shows 18.7 of the sequence (not including the original, duplicated sequence) has a homology of greater than E 1 10 10 to another location on the chromosome. This is significantly higher than the 11.2 and 5.8 duplication in Synechocystis PCC6803 and Nostoc sp. PCC7120, respectively. A. marina actually has far fewer duplicated regions t
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Ith a lambda-phage cI motif are also likely correlated with the extra recA (22, 24). The presence of multiples copies of recA and related enzymes could account for gene duplication and/or integration of foreign genes that would lead to genome expansion. Based on the comparative analysis of many genomes, Konstantinidis et al. (21) hypothesized that species with large genomes may dominate noncompeti
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Oteins including the plant and Prochlorococcus enzymes responsible for the synthesis of Chl b from chlorophyllide a, chlorophyllide a oxygenase (CAO) (Fig. 2) (31). Five putative proteins containing a CAO-type Rieske-FeS motif are encoded by A. marina. Most of the candidate genes in A. marina fall into orthologous clusters with other hypothetical cyanobacterial proteins (Fig. 2). Only one protein,
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Te the high probability of a common origin for these proteins (4). In the absence of sequence similarity, an evolutionary connection between different proteins with similar functions can be inferred if they possess similar 3D structures (5). Structural similarities between phage and viral capsid proteins point to a common evolutionary origin for the heads of tailed dsDNA phage in bacteria and arch