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Y ( 1 mM). On encountering the tail initiator complex, gpV commences polymerization in a process that is expected to include the ordering of unstructured regions. This ordering is likely facilitated by the initiator complex, and results in the formation of a surface that can participate in further polymerization until the end of the TMP is reached (Fig. S1B). Interestingly, when the tail is dissoc
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Y ( 1 mM). On encountering the tail initiator complex, gpV commences polymerization in a process that is expected to include the ordering of unstructured regions. This ordering is likely facilitated by the initiator complex, and results in the formation of a surface that can participate in further polymerization until the end of the TMP is reached (Fig. S1B). Interestingly, when the tail is dissoc
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Cyanobacteria and higher plantscontain -carotene as a primary carotenoid found in both PSI and PSII (Fig. 3). In the case of A. marina, -carotene was detected instead of -carotene, and zeaxanthin, an oxidative product of -carotene, was identified as a major carotenoid (4, 13). A similar carotenoid composition has been reported only in Prochlorococcus species that contain atypical, divinyl-Chls, an
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Rently free to specialize their metabolic library.ATP Synthase. One interesting case of the idiosyncratic plasmidgene library in A. marina is the inclusion of a second full set of ATP synthase genes on plasmid pREB4 (AM1 D0157-67). These genes are arranged into a unique operon and the individual proteins do not clearly fit into any of the described families (SI Fig. 5) (25). This unusual operon is
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Synthesis (Fig. 3). There is no clear differentiation that would explain the near-complete conversion of -carotene to zeaxanthin by -carotene hydroxylase (CrtR), the enzyme responsible for zeaxanthin biosynthesis. We suggest a putative carotene biosynthesis pathway (Fig. 3) that accommodates the distinct complement of the carotenoid biosynthesis enzymes and their end products in A. marina.Light-Ha
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Synthesis (Fig. 3). There is no clear differentiation that would explain the near-complete conversion of -carotene to zeaxanthin by -carotene hydroxylase (CrtR), the enzyme responsible for zeaxanthin biosynthesis. We suggest a putative carotene biosynthesis pathway (Fig. 3) that accommodates the distinct complement of the carotenoid biosynthesis enzymes and their end products in A. marina.Light-Ha
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Cells at the site of influenza infection, it is likely that additional direct effects of innate signals guide the virusinduced B cell response. Thus, innate signals elaborated during influenza infection modulate B cell responses to infection by acting both directly on the B cells and indirectly via signaling to dendritic cells and other cells. The relative lack of TLR7- and/or inflammasome- signal
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Ese genes are more closely related to those in filamentous cyanobacteria than the other -carotene-containing Prochlorococcus species.2008 www.pnas.org cgi doi 10.1073 pnas.A. marina is the only cyanobacterium found to contain both cruA and cruP, responsible for - and -carotene synthesis, in addition to lycopene cyclase (crtL) (35, 36). One class of cyclase, CrtL-e for -cyclase, was identified as t